NAME

bdep-new – create and initialize new project

SYNOPSIS

bdep new [options] [--no-init] spec [name]
bdep new [options] --config-add|-A cfg-dir [@cfg-name] spec [name]
bdep new [options] --config-create|-C cfg-dir [@cfg-name] spec [name]
         [cfg-args]
bdep new [options] --package [prj-spec] spec [name]
bdep new [options] --source [prj-spec] spec [name]

spec     = [lang] [type] [vcs]
lang     = --lang|-l (c|c++)[,lang-opt...]
type     = --type|-t (exe|lib|bare|empty)[,type-opt...]
vcs      = --vcs|-s  (git|none)[,vcs-opt...]
prj-spec = --directory|-d prj-dir
cfg-args = [-- bpkg-options] [--existing|-e | (module | cfg-var)...]

DESCRIPTION

The new command creates and initializes a new project (the first three forms), a new package in an already existing project (the --package form), or a new source subdirectory in an already existing project/package (the --source form). All the forms except --source first create according to spec a new build2 project/package called name in the name subdirectory of the current working directory (unless overridden with --output-dir|-o).

The first form then, unless the --no-init option is specified, initializes an empty project database as if by executing the bdep-init(1) command with the --empty option. For example:

$ bdep new -l c++ -t exe hello

$ tree hello/
hello/
├── hello/
│   ├── hello.cxx
│   └── buildfile
├── buildfile
└── manifest

Similarly, the second and third forms add an existing or create a new build configuration and then initialize the project in that configuration as if by executing the bdep-init(1) command with the --config-add or --config-create option, respectively. For example:

$ bdep new -l c++ -t exe -C @gcc hello cc config.cxx=g++

The --package form adds the new package to the packages.manifest file creating it if necessary. If no project directory is explicitly specified with --directory|-d, then the current working directory is assumed. Note that nested packages are not allowed. For example:

$ bdep new -t empty hello
$ cd hello

$ bdep new --package -l c++ -t lib libhello
$ bdep new --package -l c++ -t exe hello

$ bdep init -C @gcc cc config.cxx=g++

$ cd ..
$ tree hello/
hello/
├── hello/
│   ├── hello/
│   │   ├── hello.cxx
│   │   └── buildfile
│   ├── buildfile
│   └── manifest
├── libhello/
│   ├── libhello/
│   │   ├── hello.hxx
│   │   ├── hello.cxx
│   │   └── buildfile
│   ├── buildfile
│   └── manifest
└── packages.manifest

The --source form operates as-if by first creating according to spec a temporary project called name and then copying its source subdirectory (name/name/ by default) over to the current working directory (unless overridden with --output-dir|-o). If no project/package directory is explicitly specified with --directory|-d, then the current working directory is assumed. For example:

$ bdep new -l c++ -t bare hello
$ cd hello

$ bdep new --source -l c++ -t lib libhello
$ bdep new --source -l c++ -t exe hello

$ bdep init -C @gcc cc config.cxx=g++

$ cd ..
$ tree hello/
hello/
├── hello/
│   ├── hello.cxx
│   └── buildfile
├── libhello/
│   ├── hello.hxx
│   ├── hello.cxx
│   └── buildfile
├── buildfile
└── manifest

In all the forms, if name is omitted, then the current working directory name (unless overridden with --output-dir|-o) is used as the project/package/source subdirectory name. See Package Name for details on project/package names.

The source subdirectory can be customized with the subdir project type sub-option (see below for details). For example:

$ bdep new -l c++ -t lib,subdir=libhello/io libhello-io

$ tree libhello-io/
libhello-io/
└── libhello/
    └── io/
        ├── hello-io.hxx
        └── hello-io.cxx

By default the source subdirectory is created in the project/package root directory and contains both headers (including public headers for libraries) as well as sources. This can be customized in a number of ways using the prefix* and split project type sub-options (see below for details). For example, to move the source subdirectory inside src/:

$ bdep new -l c++ -t exe,prefix=src hello

$ tree hello/
hello/
└── src/
    └── hello/
        └── hello.cxx

And to split the library source subdirectory into public headers and other source files:

$ bdep new -l c++ -t lib,split libhello

$ tree libhello/
libhello/
├── include/
│   └── libhello/
│       └── hello.hxx
└── src/
    └── libhello/
        └── hello.cxx

See the SOURCE LAYOUT section below for details and more examples.

The output directory may already contain existing files provided they don't clash with the files to be created. The new command also recognizes certain well-known files and tries to use the extracted information in the package manifest file. Specifically, it tries to guess the license from the LICENSE file as well as extract the summary from README.md. This allows for the following workflow:

# Create a project with LICENSE and README.md on one of the Git
# hosting services (GitHub, GitLab, etc).

$ git clone .../libhello.git
$ cd libhello

$ bdep new -l c++ -t lib

The project parameters such as language, type (executable, library, etc), and version control system can be customized as described next. Some of these parameters also support parameter-specific sub-options (such as the file extensions to use in a C++ project) that can be specified with a comma after the parameter value.

The project language can be specified with the --lang|-l option. Valid values for this option and their semantics are described next. If unspecified, a C++ project is created by default.

c
A C project. Recognized language sub-options:
   c++
A C project that can also use C++. If specified, then the hxx, cxx, ixx, txx, and mxx c++ language sub-options can also be specified.
c++
A C++ project. Recognized language sub-options:
   cpp
Use the .cpp, .hpp, .ipp, .tpp, and .mpp source file extensions (alias for extension=?pp).
   extension=pattern
Derive source file extensions from pattern by replacing every ? with one of the c (source), h (header), i (inline), t (template), or m (module interface) letters. If unspecified and no individual extensions are specified with the below options, then ?xx is used by default.
   hxx=extension
Use the specified extension for header files instead of the default .hxx.
   cxx=extension
Use the specified extension for source files instead of the default .cxx.
   ixx=extension
Use the specified extension for inline files. If unspecified, then assume no inline files are used by the project.
   txx=extension
Use the specified extension for template files. If unspecified, then assume no template files are used by the project.
   mxx=extension
Use the specified extension for module interface files. If unspecified, then assume no modules are used by the project.
   c
A C++ project that can also use C.

As an example, the following command creates a header-only C++ library that uses the .h extension for header files and .cpp – for source files:

$ bdep new -l c++,hxx=h,cxx=cpp -t lib,binless libhello

The project type can be specified with the --type|-t option. The empty project type is language-agnostic with the semantics and valid sub-options for the rest being language-dependent, as described next. If unspecified, an executable project is created by default.

exe
A project that builds a sample C or C++ executable. Recognized executable project sub-options:
   no-tests
Don't add support for functional/integration testing.
   unit-tests
Add support for unit testing.
   no-install
Don't add support for installing.
   prefix=dir
Optional source prefix relative to project/package root.
   subdir=dir
Alternative source subdirectory relative to source prefix.
   no-subdir
Omit the source subdirectory.
   license=name
   no-readme
   alt-naming
See common sub-options below.
lib
A project that builds a sample C or C++ library. Recognized library project sub-options:
   binless
Create a header-only library.
   no-tests
Don't add support for functional/integration testing.
   unit-tests
Add support for unit testing.
   no-install
Don't add support for installing.
   no-version
Don't add support for generating the version header.
   prefix-include=dir
Optional public header prefix relative to project/package root.
   prefix-source=dir
Optional source prefix relative to project/package root.
   prefix=dir
Shortcut for prefix-include=dir,prefix-source=dir.
   split
Shortcut for prefix-include=include,prefix-source=src.
   subdir=dir
Alternative source subdirectory relative to header/source prefix.
   no-subdir
Omit the source subdirectory.
   no-subdir-source
Omit the source subdirectory relative to the source prefix but still create it relative to the header prefix.
   license=name
   no-readme
   alt-naming
See common sub-options below.
bare
A project without any source code that can be filled later (see --source). Recognized bare project sub-options:
   no-tests
Don't add support for testing.
   no-install
Don't add support for installing.
   license=name
   no-readme
   alt-naming
See common sub-options below.
empty
An empty project that can be filled with packages (see --package). Recognized empty project sub-options:
   no-readme
See common sub-options below.
common
Common project type sub-options:
   license=name
Specify the project's license. The license name can be an SPDX License Expression, which, in its simplest form, is just the license ID. Or it can be a free form name in the other: license name scheme. If unspecified, then other: proprietary is assumed. The following tables lists the most commonly used free/open source software license IDs as well as a number of pre-defined other: names. See the license package manifest value for more information.
MIT                MIT License.

BSD-2-Clause       BSD 2-Clause "Simplified" License
BSD-3-Clause       BSD 3-Clause "New" or "Revised" License

GPL-3.0-only       GNU General Public License v3.0 only
GPL-3.0-or-later   GNU General Public License v3.0 or later

LGPL-3.0-only      GNU Lesser General Public License v3.0 only
LGPL-3.0-or-later  GNU Lesser General Public License v3.0 or later

AGPL-3.0-only      GNU Affero General Public License v3.0 only
AGPL-3.0-or-later  GNU Affero General Public License v3.0 or later

Apache-2.0         Apache License 2.0

MPL-2.0            Mozilla Public License 2.0

BSL-1.0            Boost Software License 1.0

Unlicense          The Unlicense (public domain)
other: public domain     Released into the public domain
other: available source  Not free/open source with public source code
other: proprietary       Not free/open source
other: TODO              License is not yet decided
   no-readme
Don't add README.md.
   alt-naming
Use the alternative build file/directory naming scheme.

The project version control system can be specified with the --vcs|-s option. Valid values for this option and their semantics are described next. If unspecified, git is assumed by default.

git
Initialize a git(1) repository inside the project and generate .gitignore files.
none
Don't initialize a version control system inside the project.

The created project, package, or source subdirectory can be further customized using the pre and post-creation hooks specified with the --pre-hook and --post-hook options, respectively. The pre hooks are executed before any new files are created and the post hook – after all the files have been created. The hook commands are executed in the project, package, or source directory as their current working directory. For example:

$ bdep new --post-hook "echo .idea/ >>.gitignore" hello

The pre hooks are primarily useful for moving/renaming existing files that would otherwise clash with files created by the new command. For example:

$ bdep new --pre-hook  "mv .gitignore .gitignore.bak" \
           --post-hook "cat .gitignore.bak >>.gitignore" \
           --post-hook "rm .gitignore.bak" ...

See the --pre-hook and --post-hook options documentation below for details.

NEW OPTIONS

--no-init
Don't initialize an empty build configuration set.
--package
Create a new package inside an already existing project rather than a new project.
--source
Create a new source subdirectory inside an already existing project or package rather than a new project.
--output-dir|-o dir
Create the project, package, or source subdirectory in the specified directory.
--directory|-d dir
Assume the project/package is in the specified directory rather than in the current working directory. Only used with --package or --source.
--type|-t type[,opt...]
Specify project type and options. Valid values for type are exe (executable project, default), lib (library project), bare (bare project without any source code), and empty (empty project ready to be filled with packages). Valid values for opt are type-specific.
--lang|-l lang[,opt...]
Specify project language and options. Valid values for lang are c and c++ (default). Valid values for opt are language-specific.
--vcs|-s vcs[,opt...]
Specify project version control system and options. Valid values for vcs are git (default) and none. Valid values for opt are system-specific.
--pre-hook command
--post-hook command
Run the specified command before/after creating the project, package, or source directory.

The command value is interpreted as a whitespace-separated, potentially quoted command line consisting of a program or a portable builtin optionally followed by arguments and redirects. Specifically, a single level of quotes (either single or double) is removed and whitespaces are not treated as separators inside such quoted fragments. Currently only the stdout redirect to a file is supported. For example:

$ bdep new --post-hook "echo '.idea/ # IDE' >>.gitignore" hello

The command line elements (program, arguments, etc) may optionally contain substitutions – variable names enclosed with the @ substitution symbol – which are replaced with the corresponding variable values to produce the actual command. The following variable names are recognized with the double substitution symbol (@@) serving as an escape sequence.

@mode@ - one of 'project', 'package', or 'source'
@name@ - project, package, or source subdirectory name
@base@ - name base (name without extension)
@stem@ - name stem (name base without 'lib' prefix)
@root@ - project/package root directory
@pfx@  - combined prefix relative to project/package root
@inc@  - split header prefix relative to project/package root
@src@  - split source prefix relative to project/package root
@sub@  - source subdirectory relative to header/source prefix
@type@ - type (--type|-t value: 'exe', 'lib', etc)
@lang@ - language (--lang|-l value: 'c', 'c++', etc)
@vcs@  - version control system (--vcs|-s value: 'git', etc)

Note that the @inc@ and @src@ variables are only set if the header/source prefix is split with the combined @pfx@ variable set otherwise.

For example:

$ bdep new --post-hook "echo bin/ >>@name@/.gitignore" hello

These substitution variables are also made available to the hook program as the BDEP_NEW_* environment variables (BDEP_NEW_MODE, BDEP_NEW_NAME, etc).

--no-amalgamation
Create a project with disabled amalgamation support. This option is normally only used for testing.
--no-checks
Suppress nested project/package checks. This option is normally only used for testing.
--config-add|-A dir
Add an existing build configuration dir.
--config-create|-C dir
Create a new build configuration in dir.
--type|--config-type typ
The type of the configuration being created. By default, configuration of type target is created. See bpkg-cfg-create(1) for background on configuration types.
--default
Make the added or created configuration the default.
--no-default
Don't make the first added or created configuration the default.
--forward
Make the added or created configuration forwarded.
--no-forward
Don't make the added or created configuration forwarded.
--auto-sync
Make the added or created configuration automatically synchronized.
--no-auto-sync
Don't make the added or created configuration automatically synchronized.
--existing|-e
Initialize a bpkg configuration based on an existing build system configuration.
--wipe
Wipe the configuration directory clean before creating the new configuration.
--config-name|-n name
Specify the build configuration as a name.
--config-id num
Specify the build configuration as an id.

COMMON OPTIONS

The common options are summarized below with a more detailed description available in bdep-common-options(1).

-v
Print essential underlying commands being executed.
-V
Print all underlying commands being executed.
--quiet|-q
Run quietly, only printing error messages.
--verbose level
Set the diagnostics verbosity to level between 0 and 6.
--jobs|-j num
Number of jobs to perform in parallel.
--no-progress
Suppress progress indicators for long-lasting operations, such as network transfers, building, etc.
--bpkg path
The package manager program to be used for build configuration management.
--bpkg-option opt
Additional option to be passed to the package manager program.
--build path
The build program to be used to build packages.
--build-option opt
Additional option to be passed to the build program.
--curl path
The curl program to be used for network operations.
--curl-option opt
Additional option to be passed to the curl program.
--pager path
The pager program to be used to show long text.
--pager-option opt
Additional option to be passed to the pager program.
--options-file file
Read additional options from file.
--default-options dir
The directory to load additional default options files from.
--no-default-options
Don't load default options files.

SOURCE LAYOUT

C and C++ projects employ a bewildering variety of source code layouts most of which fit into two broad classes: combined, where all the source code for a single executable or library resides in the same directory and split, where headers (typically public headers of a library) and other source files reside in separate directories (most commonly called include/ and src/).

To support the creation of such varying layouts the new command divides paths leading to source code inside a package/project into a number of customizable components:

libhello/{include,src}/hello/
    ^         ^          ^
    |         |          |
 project/   source    source
 package    prefix  subdirectory
  root

Note that while the same physical layout can be achieved with various combinations of source prefix and subdirectory, there will be differences in semantics since the headers in the project are included with the source subdirectory (if any) as a prefix. See Canonical Project Structure for rationale and details.

As we have already seen, the source subdirectory can be customized with the subdir project type sub-option. For example:

# libhello/hello/

$ bdep new -l c++ -t lib,subdir=hello libhello

$ tree libhello/
libhello/
└── hello/
    ├── hello.hxx
    └── hello.cxx

Note: pass -l c++,cpp if you prefer the .hpp/.cpp source file naming scheme.

The source prefix can be combined, in which case it can be customized with the single prefix project type sub-option. For example:

# hello/src/hello/

$ bdep new -l c++ -t exe,prefix=src hello

$ tree hello/
hello/
└── src/
    └── hello/
        └── hello.cxx

The prefix can also be split, in which case the prefix-include and prefix-source sub-options can be used to customize the respective directories independently. If either is omitted, then the corresponding prefix is left empty. For example:

# libhello/{include,.}/libhello/

$ bdep new -l c++ -t lib,prefix-include=include libhello

$ tree libhello/
libhello/
├── include/
│   └── libhello/
│       └── hello.hxx
└── libhello/
    └── hello.cxx

The split sub-option is a convenient shortcut for the most common case where the header prefix is include/ and source prefix is src/. For example:

# libhello/{include,src}/libhello/

$ bdep new -l c++ -t lib,split libhello

$ tree libhello/
libhello/
├── include/
│   └── libhello/
│       └── hello.hxx
└── src/
    └── libhello/
        └── hello.cxx

The source subdirectory can be omitted by specifying the no-subdir project type sub-option. For example:

# hello/src/

$ bdep new -l c++ -t exe,prefix=src,no-subdir hello

$ tree hello/
hello/
└── src/
    └── hello.cxx

The same but for the split layout (we also have to disable the generated version header that is not supported in this layout):

# libhello/{include,src}/

$ bdep new -l c++ -t lib,split,no-subdir,no-version libhello

$ tree libhello/
libhello/
├── include/
│   └── hello.hxx
└── src/
    └── hello.cxx

To achieve the layout where all the source code resides in the project root, we omit both the source prefix and subdirectory (we also have to disable a couple of other features that are not supported in this layout):

# hello/

$ bdep new -l c++ -t lib,no-subdir,no-version,no-tests libhello

$ tree libhello/
libhello/
├── hello.cxx
└── hello.hxx

We can also omit the source subdirectory but only in the source prefix of the split layout by specifying the no-subdir-source sub-option. For example:

# libhello/{include/hello,src}/

$ bdep new -l c++ -t lib,split,subdir=hello,no-subdir-source libhello

$ tree libhello/
libhello/
├── include/
│   └── hello/
│       └── hello.hxx
└── src/
    └── hello.cxx

To achieve the split layout where the include/ directory is inside src/:

# libhello/src/{include,.}/hello/

$ bdep new                                                         \
  -l c++                                                           \
  -t lib,prefix-include=src/include,prefix-source=src,subdir=hello \
  libhello

$ tree libhello/
libhello/
└── src/
    ├── include/
    │   └── hello/
    │       └── hello.hxx
    └── hello/
        └── hello.cxx

A similar layout but without the source subdirectory in src/:

# libhello/src/{include/hello,.}/

$ bdep new                                                         \
  -l c++                                                           \
  -t lib,prefix-include=src/include,prefix-source=src,\
subdir=hello,no-subdir-source                                      \
  libhello

$ tree libhello/
libhello/
└── src/
    ├── include/
    │   └── hello/
    │       └── hello.hxx
    └── hello.cxx

The layout used by the Boost libraries:

# libhello/{include/hello,libs/hello/src}/

$ bdep new                                                         \
  -l c++                                                           \
  -t lib,prefix-include=include,prefix-source=libs/hello/src,\
subdir=hello,no-subdir-source                                      \
  libhello

$ tree libhello/
libhello/
├── include/
│   └── hello/
│       └── hello.hxx
└── libs/
    └── hello/
        └── src/
            └── hello.cxx

A layout where multiple components each have their own include/src split:

# hello/libhello1/{include/hello1,src}/
# hello/libhello2/{include/hello2,src}/

$ bdep new -l c++ -t bare hello

$ bdep new -d hello --source                                       \
  -l c++                                                           \
  -t lib,\
prefix-include=libhello1/include,prefix-source=libhello1/src,\
subdir=hello1,no-subdir-source                                     \
  libhello1

$ bdep new -d hello --source                                       \
  -l c++                                                           \
  -t lib,\
prefix-include=libhello2/include,prefix-source=libhello2/src,\
subdir=hello2,no-subdir-source                                     \
  libhello2

$ tree hello/
hello/
├── libhello1/
│   ├── include/
│   │   └── hello1/
│   │       └── hello1.hxx
│   └── src/
│       └── hello1.cxx
└── libhello2/
    ├── include/
    │   └── hello2/
    │       └── hello2.hxx
    └── src/
        └── hello2.cxx

A layout where libraries and executables have different prefixes:

# hello/libs/libhello/{include/hello,src}/
# hello/src/hello/

$ bdep new -l c++ -t bare hello

$ bdep new -d hello --source                                       \
  -l c++                                                           \
  -t lib,\
prefix-include=libs/libhello/include,prefix-source=libs/libhello/src,\
subdir=hello,no-subdir-source                                      \
  libhello

$ bdep new -d hello --source -l c++ -t exe,prefix=src hello

$ tree hello/
hello/
├── libs/
│   └── libhello/
│       ├── include/
│       │   └── hello/
│       │       └── hello.hxx
│       └── src/
│           └── hello.cxx
└── src/
    └── hello/
        └── hello.cxx

DEFAULT OPTIONS FILES

See bdep-default-options-files(1) for an overview of the default options files. For the new command the search start directory is the project directory in the package and source modes and the parent directory of the new project in all other modes. The following options files are searched for in each directory and, if found, loaded in the order listed:

bdep.options
bdep-{config config-add}.options                # if --config-add|-A
bdep-{config config-add config-create}.options  # if --config-create|-C
bdep-new.options
bdep-new-{project|package|source}.options # (mode-dependent)

The following new command options cannot be specified in the default options files:

--output-dir|-o
--directory|-d
--package
--source
--no-checks
--config-add|-A
--config-create|-C
--wipe

While the presence of the --pre-hook or --post-hook options in remote default options files will trigger a prompt.

ENVIRONMENT

The BDEP_AUTHOR_EMAIL environment variable can be used to specify the package email address. If not set, the new command will first try to obtain the email from the version control system (if used) and then from the EMAIL environment variable. If all these methods fail, a dummy you@example.org email is used.

BUGS

Send bug reports to the users@build2.org mailing list.