bpkg – package dependency manager


bpkg --help
bpkg --version
bpkg help [command | topic]
bpkg [common-options] command [command-options] command-args


The build2 package dependency manager is used to manipulate build configurations, packages, and repositories using a set of commands that are summarized below.

For a detailed description of any command or help topic, use the help command or see the corresponding man page (the man pages have the bpkg- prefix, for example bpkg-help(1)). Note also that command-options and command-args can be specified in any order and common-options can be specified as part of command-options.

A bpkg build configuration is a directory that contains packages built with similar settings. For example, a configuration can be for a specific target (i686, x86_64), compiler (clang, gcc) compile options (-O3, -g), and so on. Configurations are relatively cheap and can be created and thrown away as needed. Configurations can be moved and copied by simply moving and copying the directories. Note, however, that a move or copy may render some packages out-of-date. In the build2 build system terms a bpkg build configuration is an amalgamation that contains packages as subprojects (see bpkg-cfg-create(1) for details).

Build configurations can be linked with each other so that while a package is built in one configuration, some of its dependencies can be built in linked configurations (see bpkg-cfg-create(1) for details).

A bpkg package is an archive or directory (potentially in a version control system) that contains a build2 project plus the package manifest file. bpkg can either use package archives/directories directly from the filesystem or it can fetch them from repositories.

A bpkg repository is a collection of packages as well as information about prerequisite and complement repositories. Archive, directory and version control-based repositories are supported. A repository is identified by its location which can be a local filesystem path or a URL. See bpkg-repository-types(1) for details on the repository structures and URL formats.

If the same version of a package is available from multiple repositories, then they are assumed to contain identical package content. In such cases bpkg prefers local repositories over remote and among local repositories it prefers the ones with external packages (see bpkg-pkg-unpack(1) for details on external packages).

A typical bpkg workflow would consist of the following steps.

Create Configuration
bpkg create cc                   \
  config.cxx=clang++             \         \
  config.install.root=/usr/local \
Add Source Repositories
bpkg add
bpkg add

Repeat this command to add more repositories.

Fetch Available Packages List
bpkg fetch
Fetch and Build Packages
bpkg build foo bar
Drop Package
If some packages are no longer needed, we can remove them from the configuration.
bpkg drop foo
Refresh Available Packages List
bpkg fetch
Upgrade Packages
bpkg build bar
Install Packages
bpkg install bar


help [topic]
bpkg-help(1) – show help for a command or help topic
bpkg-cfg-create(1) – create configuration
bpkg-cfg-info(1) – print configuration information
bpkg-cfg-link(1) – link configuration
bpkg-cfg-unlink(1) – unlink configuration
bpkg-rep-info(1) – print repository information
bpkg-rep-add(1) – add repository to configuration
bpkg-rep-remove(1) – remove repository from configuration
bpkg-rep-list(1) – list repositories in configuration
bpkg-rep-fetch(1) – fetch list of available packages
bpkg-rep-create(1) – create repository
bpkg-pkg-status(1) – print package status
bpkg-pkg-build(1) – build package
bpkg-pkg-drop(1) – drop package
bpkg-pkg-install(1) – install package
bpkg-pkg-uninstall(1) – uninstall package
bpkg-pkg-update(1) – update package
bpkg-pkg-test(1) – test package
bpkg-pkg-clean(1) – clean package
bpkg-pkg-verify(1) – verify package archive
bpkg-pkg-fetch(1) – fetch package archive
bpkg-pkg-unpack(1) – unpack package archive
bpkg-pkg-checkout(1) – check out package version
bpkg-pkg-configure(1) – configure package
bpkg-pkg-disfigure(1) – disfigure package
bpkg-pkg-purge(1) – purge package


bpkg-common-options(1) – details on common options
bpkg-default-options-files(1) – specifying default options
bpkg-repository-types(1) – repository types, structure, and URLs
bpkg-repository-signing(1) – how to sign repository
bpkg-argument-grouping(1) – argument grouping facility


The common options are summarized below with a more detailed description available in bpkg-common-options(1).

Print essential underlying commands being executed.
Print all underlying commands being executed.
Run quietly, only printing error messages.
--verbose level
Set the diagnostics verbosity to level between 0 and 6.
--jobs|-j num
Number of jobs to perform in parallel.
Don't print informational messages about the outcome of performing a command or some of its parts.
Suppress progress indicators for long-lasting operations, such as network transfers, building, etc.
--build path
The build program to be used to build packages.
--build-option opt
Additional option to be passed to the build program.
--fetch path
The fetch program to be used to download resources.
--fetch-option opt
Additional option to be passed to the fetch program.
--fetch-timeout sec
The fetch and fetch-like (for example, git) program timeout.
--pkg-proxy url
HTTP proxy server to use when fetching package manifests and archives from remote pkg repositories.
--git path
The git program to be used to fetch git repositories.
--git-option opt
Additional common option to be passed to the git program.
--sha256 path
The sha256 program to be used to calculate SHA256 sums.
--sha256-option opt
Additional option to be passed to the sha256 program.
--tar path
The tar program to be used to extract package archives.
--tar-option opt
Additional option to be passed to the tar program.
--openssl path
The openssl program to be used for crypto operations.
--openssl-option opt
Additional option to be passed to the openssl program.
--auth type
Types of repositories to authenticate.
--trust fingerprint
Trust repository certificate with a SHA256 fingerprint.
Assume the answer to all authentication prompts is yes.
Assume the answer to all authentication prompts is no.
--pager path
The pager program to be used to show long text.
--pager-option opt
Additional option to be passed to the pager program.
--options-file file
Read additional options from file.
--default-options dir
The directory to load additional default options files from.
Don't load default options files.


Commands executed by bpkg while the current and linked build configuration databases are open will have the BPKG_OPEN_CONFIGS environment variable set to the space-separated, "-quoted list of absolute and normalized configuration directory paths. This can be used by build system hooks and/or programs that they execute.


Fatal error.
Recoverable error which is likely to disappear if the command is re-executed.


The BPKG_DEF_OPT environment variable is used to suppress loading of default options files in nested bpkg invocations. Its values are false or 0 to suppress and true or 1 to load.


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